For faster mobile-friendly and responsive development, Bootstrap includes dozens of utility classes for showing, hiding, aligning, and spacing content. Below is a primer on what’s included in Bootstrap and how these utilities can help you with layout.
display utilities for responsively toggling common values of the
display property. Mix it with our grid system, content, or components to show or hide them across specific viewports.
Bootstrap 4 is built with flexbox, but not every element’s
display has been changed to
display: flex as this would add many unnecessary overrides and unexpectedly change key browser behaviors. Most of our components are built with flexbox enabled.
Should you need to add
display: flex to an element, do so with
.d-flex or one of the responsive variants (e.g.,
.d-sm-flex). You’ll need this class or
display value to allow the use of our extra flexbox utilities for sizing, alignment, spacing, and more.
Margin and padding
padding spacing utilities to control how elements and components are spaced and sized. Bootstrap 4 includes a five-level scale for spacing utilities, based on a
1rem value default
$spacer variable. Choose values for all viewports (e.g.,
margin-right: 1rem), or pick responsive variants to target specific viewports (e.g.,
margin-right: 1rem starting at the
display isn’t needed, you can toggle the
visibility of an element with our visibility utilities. Invisible elements will still affect the layout of the page, but are visually hidden from visitors.